The political philosophy of freedom that SBP propounds is known as liberalism. These days, it is better known as classical liberalism, since the word "liberal" has been hijacked by socialists and other opponents of liberty.
Illustrative political philosophers, some of whose ideas inform this view of the world, include: Chanakya, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, Raja Ram Mohun Roy, JS Mill, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Ludwig von Mises, BR Ambedkar, C. Rajagopalachari, Minoo Masani, Ayn Rand, FA Hayek, Milton Friedman, James Buchanan, Julian Simon and Dierdre McCloskey.
The Freedom Team of India has elaborated this ideology, here.
Books/manuscripts that provide more detailed discussion include:
1) The Discovery of Freedom by Sanjeev Sabhlok (download here)
Some more resources here.
IN INDIAN LANGUAGES
Malayalam translation of The Law by Bastiat.